Dehydration is the loss of water and salts essential for normal body function.

Dehydration occurs when the body loses more fluid than it takes in. This condition can result from illness; a hot, dry climate; prolonged exposure to sun or high temperatures; not drinking enough water.

Dehydration can upset the delicate fluid-salt balance needed to maintain healthy cells and tissues.

Water accounts for about 60% of body weight.

 Children need more water because they expend more energy, but most children who drink when they are thirsty get as much water as their systems require.

This condition generally occurs in children who have stomach flu characterized by vomiting and diarrhea or who can not or will not take enough fluids to compensate for excessive losses associated with fever and sweating of acute illness.

When the body’s fluid supply is severely depleted, hypovolemic shock is likely to occur

This condition, which is also called physical collapse, is characterized by pale, cool, clammy skin; rapid heartbeat; and shallow breathing.



Dehydration occurs when the body loses more water than it takes in. It is often accompanied by disturbances in the body’s mineral salt and electrolyte balance - especially disturbances in the concentrations of sodium and potassium.


• Diarrhoea

• Vomiting

• Excessive urination

• Fever and Burns

• Heat Stroke / Sunburn

• Exercise

Signs and Symptoms

 An infant who does not wet a diaper in an eight-hour period is dehydrated

The soft spot on the baby's head (fontanel) may be depressed.

Symptoms of dehydration at any age include cracked lips, dry or sticky mouth, lethargy, and sunken eyes.

A person who is dehydrated cries without shedding tears and does not urinate very often.

The skin is less elastic than it should be and is slow to return to its normal position after being pinched.

Dehydration can cause confusion, constipation, discomfort, drowsiness, fever, and thirst.

The skin turns pale and cold, the mucous membranes lining the mouth and nose lose their natural moisture.

The pulse sometimes races and breathing becomes rapid. Significant fluid loss can cause serious neurological problems.

Who is at risk

 Athletes, such as those partaking in marathons , triathlons and long distance cycling events.

Patients  with chronic illnesses such as Diabetes and Kidney disease

Children who have stomach flu characterized by vomiting and diarrhoea.



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References: 1. http://www.europeanhydrationinstitute.org/dehydration.html [cited 2013 July 3] 2. http://sportsmedicine.about.com/od/hydrationandfluid/a/properhydration.htm [cited 2013 July 3]. 3. Nudrate Package insert. 4. New formula oral rehydration salts. WHO Drug Information 2002; 16(2):113-203. S0 NuDrate Blackcurrant Powder for reconstitution into oral solution. Each sachet contains Sodium citrate 0,73 g, Potassium chloride 0,38 g, Sodium chloride 0,65 g, Dextrose 3,38 g, Saccharin sodium 0.02 g. APPLICANT: Costiway (Pty) Ltd. Distributed by Ranbaxy (SA) (Pty) Ltd. Marketed by: Ranbaxy (SA) (Pty) Ltd, a Sun Pharma company. Reg. no.: 1993/001413/07. Ground Floor, Tugela House, Riverside Office Park, 1303 Heuwel Avenue, Centurion. Tel: +27 12 643 2000. Website: www.sunpharma.com